CONTENTS
Chapter  I    SIX GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES
Lesson 1  Sound(s)/Letter(s) - Morpheme
[Key Words]
1-1  Morpheme: One Meaning and Two Forms
Sound (+ Sound) (+ ...) Morpheme (/d-e-s-k/)
Meaning/Form (Sound(s))/Form (Letter(s))

[morpheme]
1-2  Vowels and Consonants
36 Sounds Infinite Morphemes
36+36x35+...Combinations of Sounds

[vowel]
[consonant]
1-3  Stress and Pitch
INcrease/inCREAse
Happy?/Happy!

[stress]
[pitch]
1-4  Sounds and Letters
Capital/Small Letters
36 Sounds vs 26 Letters
Notorious Spelling System

[capital letter]
[small letter]
Lesson 2  Expansion & Conversion
[Key Words]
2-1  Morpheme + Morpheme = Word
Letter(s) - Vacancy - Letter(s) - ...
[word]
[affix]
2-2  Morpheme + Morpheme = Phrase
a cat, danced happily
[phrase]
2-3  Compounds
stomach ache/stomach-ache/stomachache
[compound]
2-4  Expansion
unable/can swim
X + Y Y

[grammatical category]
[expansion]
2-5  Conversion
ability/to swim
X + Y Z

[conversion]
2-6  Major Morphemes vs Minor Morphemes
unable/ability
can swim/to swim
be going to work/because of the storm

[major morpheme]
[minor morpheme]
2-7  Minor Morpheme : Expander(EPD)/Convertor(CVT)
EPDs : un-/can/be going to
CVTs : -ity/to/because of

[expander (EPD)]
[convertor (CVT)]
Lesson 3  Major Morpheme -- Noun (N)
[Key Words]
3-1  Noun(N): Proper Noun(Npro), Countable Noun(Nc), and
        Uncountable Noun(Nu)

John, book, water
[noun (N)]
[proper noun (Npro)]
[countable noun (Nc)]
[uncountable noun (Nu)]
3-2  In Between Proper Noun (Npro) and Countable Noun (Nc)
two Johns      the john

3-3  Countable Noun (Nc) vs Uncountable Noun (Nu)
two poems      *two poetries

3-4  many + Nc vs much + Nu
many cats      much water
[singular form]
[plural form]
3-5  In Between Nc and Nu
much kindness      *many kindnesses
3-6  Counting Nu?
a blade of grass
[collocation]
3-7  Collocations of Countable Nouns
a pack of cigarettes
Lesson 4  Major Morpheme -- Adjective (A)
[Key Words]
4-1  Adjective(A), Noun Expansion(A + N)
big apple
[adjective(A)]
4-2  Meanings of Adjectives
Shape, Color, Size, Material, Others
round, green, big, wooden, rich


4-3  Postpositional Adjectives
something nice

4-4  Two or More Adjectives: A1 - A2 - N
*the young big man

4-5  N? + N = N
a girl friend
4-6 Two Grammatical Features of Adjectives: Adjectivity
big house/The house is big.
utter fool/*The fool is utter.

[adjectivity]
Lesson 5  Major Morpheme -- Verb (V)
[Key Words]
5-1  Verb (V)
Action/State
come, know

[verb (V)]
5-2  Verb (V) and Verbalizer (VZ)
have a headache
[verbalizer (VZ)]
5-3  Be-Verb(Vbe) vs Common Verb(Vcom)
be lucky  vs  go
[be-verb (Vbe)]
[common verb (Vcom)]
Lesson 6  Major Morpheme -- Adverb (AD)
[Key Words]
6-1  Adverb (AD), Verb Expansion (V + AD)
Try again.
[adverb (AD)]
6-2  Meanings of Adverbs
Time & Place, Manner & Frequency,
Speaker's Attitude


6-3  Adverbs with/without "-ly"
again/slowly

6-4  Scopes of Adverbs
Scopes of Adverbs: A/V/AD/S
Fortunately he did not die.

[scope]
6-5  Two or More Adverbs: V - AD1 - AD2
  I worked hard yesterday.
*I worked yesterday hard.

Lesson 7  Minor Morpheme -- Expander(EPD)
[Key Words]
7-1  Kinds of Expanders(EPDs)
EPD + X X
[noun expander (N EPD)]
[adjective expander (A EPD)]
[verb expander (V EPD)]
[adverb expander (AD EPD)]
[sentence expander (S EPD)]
7-2  N EPD(Affix){Plural}: PL
two dogs/two books/two dishes
[N EPD{Plural} (PL)]
7-3  Regular Plural Forms: "-s" and "-es"
Letter(s): -s, -es
Sound(s): /s/, /z/, /iz/
[regular plural form]
7-4  Irregular Plural Forms: "-ren", etc.
two children    two geese    two sheep
[irregular plural form]
[expander "ø"]
7-5  N EPD(Word) {Indefinite}: INDF
a day
{Indefinite} + {One}
[N EPD{Indefinite} (INDF)]
7-6  "a" vs "an"
an egg/*a egg

7-7  a(n) + A + Nu
*a rain  vs  a heavy rain

7-8  N EPD(Word) {Definite}: DEF
the house, the door, the earth
[N EPD{Definite} (DEF)]
7-9  Other N EPD(Word)s
one, some, few, little, many, much, no
first, this, these, each, all, neither, both

[N EPD{Quantifier} (QUANT)]
[N EPD{Demonstrative} (DEM)]
7-10  A(D) EPD {Comparative}: CMP
-er/more
[A(D) EPD{Comparative} (CMP)]
7-11  A(D) EPD {Superlative}: SUP
-est/most
[A(D) EPD{Superlative} (SUP)]
7-12  OMNI EPD: OMNI
ham and eggs,
or/but/not only...but also...

[OMNI EPD (OMNI)]
Lesson 8  Minor Morpheme -- Convertor(CVT)
[Key Words]
8-1  Kinds of Convertors(CVTs)
CVT + X Y
[noun-adjective convertor (N-A CVT)]
[noun-verb convertor (N-V CVT)]
[noun-adverb convertor (N-AD CVT)]
[adjective-noun convertor (A-N CVT)]
[adjective-verb convertor (A-V CVT)]
[adjective-adverb convertor (A-AD CVT)]
[verb-noun convertor (V-N CVT)]
[verb-adjective convertor (V-A CVT)]
[verb-adverb convertor (V-AD CVT)]
[adverb-noun convertor (AD-N CVT)]
[adverb-adjective convertor (AD-A CVT)]
[adverb-verb convertor (AD-V CVT)]
[sentence-noun convertor (S-N CVT)]
[sentence-adjective convertor (S-A CVT)]
[sentence-adverb convertor (S-AD CVT)]
8-2  N-A CVT(Affix): "-ful" and "-'s"
careful/ Mom's

8-3  N-A CVT(Affix) " -'s" vs N-A CVT(Word) "of"
Japan's  vs  of Japan

8-4  N-A(D) CVT(Word): "by", etc.
by the window (A/AD)
in front of me (A/AD)


8-5  N-A(D) CVTs with Multiple Meanings
on: Place, Time, Relation
8-6  OM-NI CVT: "ø"
[ø + boy] friend
[ø + valuable] + -s

[OM-NI CVT (ø)]
8-7  Summary of Morphemes
Major Morphemes: noun(N), adjective(A), verb(V),
adverb(AD)
Minor Morphemes: expander(EPD), convertor(CVT)



Chapter  II    SENTENCE(S)
Lesson 9  Sentence & Agreement
[Key Words]
9-1  S:(A)-N-V-(AD)
Cheerful cheerleaders cheer cheerfully.
[sentence (S)]
9-2  Two Tenses:Present & Past

[present form]
[past form]
9-3  Agreement

[agreement]
9-4  Two Present Forms of Vcom's
3rd-Person Singular
PRS+Vcom(work/works)

[3rd-person singular present form]
[V EPD{Agreement} (AGR)]
[V EPD{Agreement(Present)} (PRS)]
9-5  One Past Form of Vcom's
PST + Vcom(worked)
[V EPD{Agreement(Past)} (PST)]
9-6  Three Present Forms of Vbe's
PRS + Vbe am/is/are

9-7  Two Past Forms of Vbe's
PST + Vbe was/were
w- + PRS PST


9-8  Summary of Present/Past Forms
                   S
                  
               N       V
                      
             EPD[AGR]      V
            (PRS/PST)

Lesson 10  Verb Patterns
[Key Words]
10-1  Three Verb Patterns
V1: V
V2: VZ+X
V3: VZ+Y+Z

[Three Verb Patterns]
10-2  Seven Verb Patterns
V1: V
V2: VZ+N
V3: VZ+A
V4: VZ+AD
V5: VZ+N+N
V6: VZ+N+A
V7: VZ+N+AD

[Seven Verb Patterns]
10-3  Diagrams


10-4  Versatile Verbalizers
Mary kept a diary/kept quiet/kept her room neat and tidy/...

Lesson 11  Anaphora
[Key Words]
11-1  Repetition and Equi Rules #1#3
Equi Rule #1 :Simple Repetition
You don't need sulfur for drying apricots;
sulfur ruins the flavor.
Equi Rule #2 :Anaphoric Form
John works for Baskin-Robbins. He likes
ice cream.
Equi Rule #3 :Gap(ø)
A novel was written ø by the computer.

[Equi Rule #1]
[Equi Rule #2]
[Equi Rule #3]
[gap(ø)]
11-2  Equi Rule #2 and Anaphoric Form
ANA + John he
[anaphoric form]
[N EPD {Anaphora} (ANA)]
11-3  N EPD{Anaphora}(ANA)and Gender/Number/Person
ANA + N
he - him
N0 + VZ + N1

[subjective case]
[objective case]
11-4  -self/-selves
I-me-myself

11-5  Other Anaphoric Forms
each other, one, so, do so, as many,
his, their, then, there


11-6  Backward Anaphora
It's delicious, this coffee.
It's expensive to live in a big city.

[backward anaphora]

Chapter  III    VERB EXPANSION
Lesson 12  V EPD{Modal}: MOD("can", "will", etc.)
[Key Words]
12-1  V EPD{Modal}: MOD
can write a novel
[V EPD {Modal} (MOD)]
[obligatory]
[optional]
12-2  Meanings of "can"


12-3  Meanings of "will"


12-4  Meanings of "may"


12-5  Meanings of "must"

12-6  Meanings of "should"


12-7  Epistemic  vs  Non-epistemic
John must be careful.
(epistemic:Certainty)
(non-epistemic:Obligation)

[epistemic]
[non-epistemic]
12-8  Agreement of Non-Epistemic MODs
The baby can walk now.
The baby could walk a week ago.


12-9  Agreement of Epistemic MODs
You should be more careful here and now.
You should have been more careful then and there.


12-10  SEMI-MODs
I am going to quit my job.
I have to call Susan.

[SEMI-V-EPD{Modal}:SEMI-MOD]
12-11  Idiomatic Expressions
Will you put this back?

12-12  Polite "could/would/might"
Could you pick me up?

Lesson 13  V EPD{Perfect}:PERF("have-en")
[Key Words]
13-1  V EPD {Perfect}:PERF
PERF: "have-en"
Perfect/Experience/Continuance

[V EPD {Perfect} (PERF)]
13-2  Diagram


13-3  Ven and Perfect/Passive Participle

[Ven]
[perfect/passive participle]
13-4  PRS + V vs PST + V vs PRS + "have-en" + V
The man in charge is/was/has been out ...

13-5  Unapplicable PERF
*Einstein has been in Paris before.
13-6  "Had Ven"


13-7  "Had Ven" with Some Other Meanings

Lesson 14  V EPD {Progressive}:PROG("be-ing")
[Key Words]
14-1  V EPD {Progressive}:PROG
PROG: "be-ing"
[V EPD {Progressive} (PROG)]
14-2  Diagram

[Ving]
[progressive participle]
14-3  Meanings of PROG("be-ing")
Progressive
Repeated Action


14-4  Unapplicable PROG
*I am knowing the news.

Lesson 15  V EPD{Passive}:PASS("be-en")
[Key Words]
15-1  V EPD {Passive}:PASS
PASS: "be-en"
[V EPD {Passive} (PASS)]
15-2  Diagram


15-3  Gap (ø)
John will write an essay about himself/*ø.
An essay was written ø/*itself.
obligatory ø vs optional ø


15-4  PASS+VZ+N+A(D)/VZ+N1+N2
A lof of people were made ø homeless.
He was given ø a Nobel Prize in 1971.


15-5  Unapplicable PASS
have a ball vs kick a ball
15-6  Two Motivations of the Passive Usage
 (i) To hide the agent(without "by N")
(ii) To emphasize the agent (with "by N")


15-7  Action/State by PASS
The chair was broken. (ambiguous)

15-8  "in" + Target, "at" + Cause, etc.
My brother is interested ø in history.

15-9  V + CVT VZ?
laugh + at N    vs    laught at + N

15-10  PASS + VZ + N + to + V
You are expected ø to go alone.
*I was wished ø to join their team.


Lesson 16  Complex Combinations of V EPDs :
(MOD)+(PERF)+(PROG)+(PASS)+V

[Key Words]
16-1  Complex Combinations of V EPDs
The computer will have written a novel in a week.
A novel will have been being written ø for 10,000
hours by the computer by next month.

[complex combination of V EPDs]
16-2  Diagrams and Examples
I must be dreaming.
Tom will be invited ø to the party.


16-3  Number/Order in Complex Combinations of V EPDs
PRS/PST+(will, etc.)+(have-en)+(be-ing)+(be-en)+ V
PRS/PST+(MOD)+(PERF)+(PROG)+(PASS)+V


Chapter  IV    SENTENCE EXPANSION
Lesson 17  Emphatic Sentence(EMPH-S)
[Key Words]
17-1  Kernel Sentence(K-S) and Emphatic Sentence(EMPH-S)
John IS a vegetarian.
John DOES like onions.

[accent]
[kernel sentence (K-S)]
[emphatic sentence (EMPH-S)]
17-2  Diagrams

[S EPD {Emphasis} (EMPH)]
17-3  Operations of EMPH
-DO Type   vs   +DO Type
[-DO type]
[+DO type]
17-4  Operator
We ARE friends.
You SHOULD take this medicine.
We DO go to school on Saturdays.

[operator]
17-5  Scopes of EMPH:Sentence vs Word/Phrase
Mary DID write to John yesterday.
Mary WROTE to John yesterday.

Lesson 18  Negative Sentences(EMPH-NEG-S/NEG-S/etc.)
[Key Words]
18-1  Emphatic Negative Sentence(EMPH-NEG-S)
John ISN'T a vegetarian.
John DOESN'T like onions.

[emphatic negative sentence (EMPH-NEG-S)]
[S EPD{Emphatic Negation} (EMPH-NEG)]
18-2  Diagrams


18-3  Operations of EMPH-NEG

[operator specification]
18-4  Simple Negative Sentence(NEG-S)
John isn't a vegetarian.
John doesn't like onions.

[simple negative sentence (NEG-S)]
[S EPD {Simple Negation} (NEG)]
18-5  Operations of NEG
Removal of Accent
18-6  Scopes of (EMPH-)NEG:Sentence vs Word/Phrase
TOM didn't give her a cake.
What the dictionary says is not always correct.
You may not        stay here.


18-7  Scope of an Adverb vs Scope of an (EMPH-)NEG
She definitely didn't speak to him.

18-8  Polarity
not ...give a red cent vs *not ...pretty late

18-9  Other Negative Elements
unhappy, dishonest, nonpolitical,
no, few, little, hardly, never


Lesson 19  Yes/No Questions(EMPH-Q-S/Q-S/INF-Q-S)
[Key Words]
19-1  Emphatic Question(EMPH-Q-S)
IS John a vegetarian?
DOES John like onions?

[emphatic question (EMPH-Q-S)]
[S EPD {Emphatic Question} (EMPH-Q)]
19-2  Diagrams


19-3  Operations of EMPH-Q

[Q Inversion]
19-4  Simple Question(Q-S)
Is John a vegetarian?
Does John like onions?

[simple question (Q-S)]
[S EPD {Simple Question} (Q)]
19-5  Operations of Q
Removal of Operator Accent
19-6  Scopes of (EMPH-)Q: Sentence vs Word/Phrase
Did John vote for SUSAN (not DEBBIE)?
Did John vote FOR (not AGAINST) Susan?


19-7  Negative Question(NEG-Q-S)
Isn't John a vegetarian?
Doesn't John like onions?

[negative question (NEG-Q-S)]
19-8  Informal Question(INF-Q-S)
John is a vegetarian?
John likes onions?

[informal question (INF-Q-S)]
[S EPD {Informal Question} (INF-Q)]
Lesson 20  Shortened Sentences
[Key Words]
20-1  Short Answers
Short Answers to Four Types of Questions
Yes, he is a vegetarian. - Yes, he is ø.    -    Yes ø.
*Yes, ... ISN'T/DOESN'T .        *No, ... IS/DOES .


20-2  Conditional Short Answers
In a sense, yes.
Technically, no.

[conditional short answer]
20-3  Echo-Question(ECHO-Q-S)
A:John likes onions. B:Does he?
A:I like onions. B:Do you?

[echo question (ECHO-Q-S)]
20-4  Tag: Substandard vs Standard
John is a vegetarian, is he?
John is a vegetarian, isn't he?

[tag]
[substandard tag]
[standard tag]
20-5  Informal Tag
John is a vegetarian, right?
John isn't a vegetarian, right?

[informal tag]
20-6  Other Tags
They forgot to attend the lecture, don't you think?

Lesson 21  Questions with Wh-Words
(WH-ECHO-Q-S/INF-WH-Q-S/WH-Q-S/etc.)

[Key Words]
21-1  Wh-Echo-Question(WH-ECHO-Q-S)
what + [John lost his dadada]
John lost his what?

[wh-echo-question (WH-ECHO-Q-S)]
[S EPD {Wh-Echo Question} (WH-ECHO-Q)]
21-2  Diagrams


21-3  Operations of WH-ECHO-Q


21-4  Informal Wh-Question(INF-WH-Q-S)(i)
Mary hit whom?
His plane was hijacked where?
Operations of INF-WH-Q

[informal wh-question (INF-WH-Q-S)]
[S EPD {Informal Wh-Question} (INF-WH-Q)]
21-5  Informal Wh-Question(INF-WH-Q-S)(ii)

21-6  Wh-Question(WH-Q-S)
What did you lose?
Where did you lose it?

[wh-question (WH-Q-S)]
[S EPD {Wh-Question} (WH-Q)]
21-7  Wh-Words at the Sentence Front
What happened?
Who hit upon the idea first?
Operations of WH-Q


21-8  Wh-Exclamation(WH-EXCL-S)
What a cold day it was!
How happy she is!

[wh-exclamation (WH-EXCL-S)]
[S EPD {Wh-Exclamation} (WH-EXCL)]
Chapter  V    VERB CONVERSION
Lesson 22  Verb-Noun Convertor(V-N CVT): "to", "-ing", etc.
[Key Words]
22-1  Verb-Noun Convertor(V-N CVT):"to"
To watch wild birds is my hobby.
[verb-noun convertor (V-N CVT):"to"]
22-2  Dummy "it"
It is not always good to talk frankly.
[dummy "it"]
22-3  "to" + Complex Expanded Verb N: to have Ven, not to
          V, etc.

The poor hate to be pitied by the rich.

22-4  Verb-Noun Convertor(V-N CVT):"how to", etc.
how to make a fire/where to go/...
[verb-noun convertor (V-N CVT):"how to"]
22-5  for + N A
It is very hard for a high school dropout to get a job.
22-6  VZ + ø + N + to V
I want ø you to come back soon.

22-7  VZ + ø + N + ø + V
I made ø him ø go.

22-8  Verb-Noun Convertor(V-N CVT):"-ing"
I like watching wild birds.
[verb-noun convertor (V-N CVT):"-ing"]
22-9  Ambiguous Ving(i)
My hobby is collecting stamps.
My brother is collecting stamps.


22-10  "-ing" + Complex Expanded Verb N: being Ven, having
Ven, etc.
I knew for the first time the happiness of loving and being
loved.


22-11  N + 's A
I'm proud of my son's attending a good school.
I'm proud of ø attending a good school.


22-12  N's Ving    vs    N Ving
I don't mind John's/John smoking in my room.

22-13  to + V N    vs    V + -ing N

Lesson 23  Verb-Adverb Convertor(V-AD CVT): "to", "-ing", etc.
[Key Words]
23-1  Verb-Adverb Convertor(V-AD CVT) : "to"
We went to 7-eleven to buy some ice cream.
[verb-adverb convertor (V-AD CVT):"to"]
23-2  Meanings of "to" in Adverbial "to V"
Purpose, Cause/Reason, Base of Judgment,
Result, Condition


23-3  "to" + Complex Expanded Verb AD:to have Ven, not to V,
etc.
What did you do to be hated like that?

23-4  for + N AD
She opened the door for him to get out.

23-5  Verb-Adverb Convertor(V-AD CVT):-ing
Seeing him, she ran away.
[verb-adverb convertor (V-AD CVT):"-ing"]
23-6  Meanings of "-ing" in Adverbial "Ving"
Incidental State, Time, Cause/Reason,
Condition, Concession


23-7  "-ing" + Complex Expanded Verb AD:being Ven, having
Ven, etc.
(Being) Written in simple English, the book is easy to read.

23-8  (with) N + Ving
(With) Mary being away at school, I don't have to stay at
home.


23-9  "there" as a noun(N)
There being a fork in the road, we lost the way.

23-10  when/while Ving
When hunting, a snake is very careful.

23-11  to + V AD   vs   V + -ing AD

Lesson 24  Verb-Adjective Convertor(V-A CVT):"to", "-ing"
[Key Words]
24-1  Verb-Adjective Convertor(V-A CVT): "to"
John has a large family to look after him.
John has a large family to look after ø.

[verb-adjective convertor(V-A CVT):"to"]
24-2  "to" + Complex Expanded Verb A:to be Ving, to have Ven,
etc.
The patient seems to be getting better.

24-3  for + N AD
a lot of books for children to read ø

24-4  Verb-Adjective Convertor(V-A CVT): "-ing"
the baby sleeping in the cradle
[verb-adjective convertor(V-A CVT):"-ing"]
24-5  Ambiguous Ving(ii)
sleeping BABY    vs    SLEEPING car
24-6  (being) Ven: A
three days left

24-7  to + V A    vs    V + -ing A


Chapter  VI    SENTENCE CONVERSION
Lesson 25  Sentence-Noun Convertor(S-N CVT): "that", "if", etc.
[Key Words]
25-1  Sentence-Noun Convertor(S-N CVT):"that"
I know that Bill told a lie.
[sentence-noun convertor(S-N CVT):"that"]
[noun clause]
25-2  Nouniness of "that + K-S"

[nouniness]
25-3  Omission of "that": Reanalysis
John told a lie, I think.
[reanalysis]
25-4  Sentence-Noun Convertor(S-N CVT):"if/whether"
John wonders if/whether Mary told a lie.
[sentence-noun convertor(S-N CVT):"if/whether"]
25-5  "that + K-S"    vs    "if + K-S"
John wonders that/if Mary told a lie.
[nominalization]
25-6  Sentence-Noun Convertor(S-N CVT):"where", etc.
I don't know where John lives.
[sentence-noun convertor(S-N CVT):"where"]
25-7  EPD?      CVT?
I don't know where John lives.
Where does John live?


25-8  S-N CVT with {Exclamation}:"how/what"
... how fast she can run.
... what a good time I had at your party.


25-9  Dummy "it" ..."that/whether/wh-word + K-S"
It is a miracle that he is safe.

25-10  Summary of S-N CVTs
I wonder that the girl loves a frog.
I wonder if the girl loves a frog.
I wonder why the girl loves a frog ø.


Lesson 26  Sentence-Adverb Convertor(S-AD CVT): "because", etc.
[Key Words]
26-1  Sentence-Adverb Convertor(S-AD CVT):"because"
Because I overslept, I missed the train.
[sentence-adverb convertor(S-AD CVT):"because"]
[adverbial clause]
26-2  Some other S-AD CVTs :"after", "when", etc.
after, as, before, if, since, though,
when, while, until, once, etc.


26-3  S-AD CVT    vs    N-AD CVT
since she retired    vs    since her retirement

26-4  "if"(S-AD CVT)    vs    "if"(S-N CVT)
If he comes back, I'll tell you.
I wonder if he will come back.


26-5  Chunk CVTs and Stepping-Stone CVTs
the moment,      so ... that
[chunk CVT]
[stepping-stone CVT]
26-6  S EPD {Subjunctive}: SUBJ
If I were you, I wouldn't do that.
[conditional "if"]
[subjunctive "if"]
[S EPD{Subjunctive}(SUBJ)]
26-7  {Past} + {Subjunctive}
If we had had a good map, we could have
found a shortcut easily.


26-8  SUBJ in N/A Clause
I wish I were a bird.
She looked as if she had seen a ghost or something.


26-9  SUBJ + Phrase
Without your help, I couldn't do it.
Without your help, I couldn't have done it.


26-10  Inversion = Omission of "if"
Were it not for the sun, nothing could live.

Lesson 27  Sentence-Adjective Convertor(S-A CVT):
"that", "which", "who(m)", etc.

[Key Words]
27-1  Sentence-Adjective Convertor(S-A CVT):"that"
The fish that ø was caught by John was big.
[sentence-adjective convertor(S-A CVT):"that"]
27-2  Gap (ø)
The fish that John caught ø was big.
[adjective clause]
27-3  Some Other S-A CVTs: "which","who", etc.


27-4  Restrictive    vs    Non-restrictive
The fish which John caught was big.
The fish, which John caught, was big.

[restrictive use]
[non-restrictive use]
27-5  Omission of S-A CVTs
The pizza ø the boy delivered was cold.
27-6  "the thing which" "what"
I gave him what/the thing which I bought in Mexico.
[variant form]
27-7  "in which/that...to" "when/where"
There are occasions when/in which we feel like
cutting classes.


27-8  Grand Summary
  (i) Verb Expansion         (ii) Sentence Expansion
(iii) Verb Conversion      (iv) Sentence Conversion