‘æIIIÍ@“®ŽŒ‚ÌŠg[ y‹³Žt—pƒm[ƒgz

‚k‚d‚r‚r‚n‚m@‚P‚U@@‚uŠg[Žq‚Ì•¡‡Œ`iMOD+PERF+...j

 ø¢16-1-NT-(A)@m‚uŠg[Žq‚Ì•¡‡Œ`n 
@@@@@ŠwK‰p•¶–@‚ł́A
@@@@@@(i) ‹`–±“I‚Å‚ ‚éoŒÄ‰žp‚Ì‚uŠg[Žq(AGR)‚ƁA”CˆÓ“I‚Å‚ ‚éo–@«p(MOD)A
               oŠ®—¹p(PERF)Aoisp(PROG)AoŽógp(PASS)‚Ì‚uŠg[Žq‚Æ‚Ì‹æ•ÊA
‚ªA‚Ü‚¸d—v‚ȃ|ƒCƒ“ƒg‚ƂȂ낤B‚»‚ÌŽŸ‚ɂ́A‚S‚‚̔CˆÓ“I‚È‚uŠg[ŽqiMOD, PERF, 
PROG, PASS)‚ð‚Ü‚Á‚½‚­“¯—ñ‚Ɉµ‚Á‚Ä‚æ‚¢‚©‚Ç‚¤‚©‚ªƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒg‚Æ‚È‚éB‚±‚ê‚ç‚ɂ͐æs‚·
‚éoŒÄ‰žp‚Ì‚uŠg[Žq(AGR)‚âŒã‚É‘±‚­“®ŽŒi‚uj‚Æ‚Ì‘g‚ݍ‡‚킹‚̍ۂÉrestrictions‚Ì
ˆá‚¢‚ª‚ ‚éB‚»‚Ì‚½‚߁AMOD ‚𑼂̂R‚‚Ƌæ•Ê‚·‚镶–@‰Æ(Palmer, F.R.(1974, p.31/
1988, p.32), Akmajian & Heny(1979), Wardhaugh, R.‚È‚Ç)‚âAPASS(be-en)‚𑼂̂R‚Â
‚Æ‹æ•Ê‚·‚镶–@‰ÆiChomsky, N. 1957‚È‚Ç)‚à‚¢‚éB
@@@@@‚±‚Ì–{‚ł́A‚S‚‚̂uŠg[Žq‚ð‚·‚×‚Ä“¯‚¶”CˆÓ“I‚È‚uŠg[Žq‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚Ü‚Æ‚ß‚½
ã‚ŁA
        @ (ii) oŽógp‚Ì‚uŠg[Žq(PASS)‚Æ‚»‚Ì‘¼‚Ì‚uŠg[ŽqiMOD, PERF, PROGj‚Æ
‚Ì‹æ•ÊA‚Æ‚¢‚¤“_‚ð‘æ‚Q‚̃|ƒCƒ“ƒg‚Æ‚·‚éB PASS ‚Í•K‚¸ƒÓ‚𐶂ݏo‚µA‚»‚Ì‘¼‚ÍANA
i-selfjŒ`‚𐶂ݏo‚·‚©‚ç‚Å‚ ‚éB 


 ø¢16-1-NT-(B)@mBache ‚Ì•ªÍn 
@@@@@Bache,C.(1995)‚́A“®ŽŒ‚Ü‚í‚è‚ð a)Actionality, b)Temporality, 
c)Aspectuality ‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚R‚‚̑f«‚Å“‡“I‚É•ªÍ‚Å‚«‚é‚Æ‚·‚éB—Ⴆ‚΁ABache(p.301)
‚́ATense ‚ðtemporal/simplex ‚ɁA‚³‚ç‚É simplex ‚Í punctual/durative ‚ɁA
durative ‚Í‚³‚ç‚É telic/atelic ‚ɁAatelic ‚Í‚³‚ç‚É directed/self-contained ‚É
‰ºˆÊ‹æ•ª‚·‚éB‚»‚µ‚āAŽŸ‚̂悤‚È—á‚ł́A
             1) Ted played the serenade for Sally.
             2) Ted was playing the serenade for Sally.
             3) Ted is playing the serenade for Sally.
1)‚̉ºü•”‚Í[telic, past, perfective], 2)‚̉ºü•”‚Í[directed, past, perfective],
3)‚̉ºü•”‚Í[directed,present,imperfective]‚Æ‘f«•ªÍ‚³‚ê‚éB


 ø¢16-3-NT-(A)@m“ú–{Œê‚Ì•¡‡‚uŠg[Œ`n 
          “ú–{Œê‚Å‚àA“®ŽŒ‚É‚¢‚­‚‚©‚Ì‚¢‚í‚ä‚鏕“®ŽŒ‚ð‚©‚ç‚ß‚Ó‚­‚ç‚Ü‚¹‚é—á‚Í‚ 
‚éB‚»‚̏ꍇ‚É‚à•“®ŽŒ‚̏‡˜‚͏d—v‚Å‚ ‚éB
             1)   s‚©E‚¹E‚ç‚êE‚½‚­E‚È‚©‚Á‚½E‚炵‚¢B
             2) –s‚©E‚ç‚êE‚¹E‚½‚­E‚È‚©‚Á‚½E‚炵‚¢B
             3) –s‚©E‚¹E‚½‚­E‚ç‚êE‚È‚©‚Á‚½E‚炵‚¢B
             4) –s‚©E‚¹E‚ç‚êE‚½‚­E‚炵‚¢E‚È‚©‚Á‚½B


 ø¢16-3-NT-(B)@m•¡‡‚uŠg[Žq‚̏‡˜n 
@@@@@•¡‡‚uŠg[Žq‚ª‚»‚̏‡˜‚ð”j‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¤‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Ƃ͋ɂ߂ă}ƒŒ‚Å‚ ‚éB
              1)a.  Sam may have been arrested for selling drugs. 
                                             iMcCawley,J.D. 1988, p.76j
                b. *Sam may be had arrested for selling drugs.
              2)a.  Dinner is being served. (ibid.)
                b. *Dinner is been serving. 
              3)a.  Max may have been studying. (Kaplan, p.218)
                b. *Max has may been studying.
                c. *Max may be have studied.
                d. *Max is may have studied.
              4)a.  Mary has been eating my chocolates. i‘åêA1981, p.106j
                b. *Mary is having eaten my chocolates.
‚½‚¾‚µAŽŸ‚Ì Schachter,P.(1983, p.161) ‚̗ᕶ(in McCawley,J.D. 1988, p.223) ‚́A
‚»‚̃}ƒŒ‚È—á‚Å‚ ‚é‚ÆŽv‚í‚ê‚éB
              5)  Whenever I see you, you're always just having returned from a
                  vacation.


 ø¢16-3-NT-(C)@mˆê”Ê“I‚Å‚È‚¢•¡‡‚uŠg[Œ`n 
@@@@@–{•¶’†‚Ì(21h)`(21o)‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮA­‚È‚­‚Æ‚à‚ЂƂè‚Ì•¶–@‰Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•s‰Â‚Æ
‚³‚ê‚éB
      (21h)‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮA‚w:Quirk,et al. 1985, p.166/›:¬“cAã, p.177
      (21i)‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮA‚w:¬“cAã, p.165
      (21j)‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮA‚w:Quirk,et al. 1985, p.166
      (21k)‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮA‚w:Quirk,et al. 1985, p.166
      (21l)‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮA‚w:¬“cAã, p.165
      (21m)‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮA‚w:¬“cAã, p.165/›:¬“cAã, p.177, McCawley, J.D. p.76
      (21n)‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮA‚w:Quirk,et al. 1985, p.166
      (21o)‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮA‚w:]ìAp.279/›:Quirk,et al. 1985, p.64
@@@@@‚à‚¤­‚µ‹ï‘Ì“I‚ɏq‚ׂé‚ƁAQuirk, et al.(1985, p.166)‚́A
               AB: may have examined (p.151)
               AC: may be examining
               AD: may be examined
               BC: has been examining
               BD: has been examined 
               CD: is being examined
              ABC: may have been examining
@@@@@@@ABD: may have been examined
        @@@ACD: may be being examined
        @@@BCD: has been being examined
             ABCD: may have been being examined
‚ŁAAD, BD, CD, ACD, ‚̓}ƒŒA BCD, ABCD, ‚Í‚à‚Á‚ƃ}ƒŒA‚Æ‚­‚É "be being" sequence
‚ª‚«‚ç‚í‚ê‚éA‚Æ‚·‚éB—Ⴆ‚΁A
             1) ?Seats have not been being won by the Conservatives lately. 
@@@@@—é–؁EˆÀˆäò(p.286)‚ɂ́AŒˆ‚Ü‚Á‚½•\Œ»‚Å—e”F‚³‚ê‚é—á 2-b) ‚Æ‚Æ‚à‚É‚Ù‚Æ
‚ñ‚Ç•s‰Â‚Ń}ƒŒ‚È—á‚Æ‚µ‚Ä 3-b) ‚ª‚ ‚°‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB
             2) a. They have been building a lot of houses recently.
                b. A lot of houses have been being built recently.
                             | Close, R.A. p.251
             3) a. Volunteers have been running the organisation.
                b. The organisation has been being run by volunteers. 
                             |Leech, G.N. p.50
@@@@@¬“c(ãAp165)‚ɂ́AŒ»ÝŠ®—¹isŒ`A‰ß‹ŽŠ®—¹isŒ`A–¢—ˆŠ®—¹isŒ`A
‚»‚µ‚Ä–¢—ˆŠ®—¹Žó“®‘Ô‚ðŽg—p‚·‚邱‚Æ‚Í‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚Ç‚È‚¢A‚Æ‚ ‚éB‚‚܂èA*have been 
‚uingA*will have been ‚uingA*will have been ‚uen ‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB
@@@@@]ì(p.279)‚ɂ́A\•¶ã‚͉”\‚Å‚àŽÀÛã‚Í‚³‚¯‚ç‚ê‚éŒ`‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŽŸ‚̗Ⴊ
‚ ‚èA
         @@4) The road has been being repaired.
             5) The road will have been being repaired.
             6) The bridge will be being repaired.
lH“I‚Å–â‘èŠO‚̗ᕶ‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŽŸ‚̗Ⴊ‚ ‚éB
             7) The road will have been being repaired.
@@@@@‚µ‚©‚µ‚È‚ª‚çA(21h)`(21o)‚ÌŒ`‚Å‚àA‚»‚̉”ۂɂ‚¢‚Änative informants
‚̊Ԃňӌ©‚Ì•ª‚©‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚à‚ ‚éB‚Ü‚½A‚ ‚éŒÀ‚ç‚ꂽƒRƒ“ƒeƒLƒXƒg‚ðƒCƒ[ƒW‚·‚ê‚ΉÂ
‚Æ‚È‚éƒP[ƒX‚à‚ ‚éBŽŸ‚Ì
 8) ‚Í Scheffer, J. ‚Ì—á‚Å‚ ‚邪A
             8) *The work will be being finished in the afternoon.
‚O‚O‚V‚̉f‰æ‚Ì’†‚ŃXƒpƒC‚ªŽó‚¯‚éŽw—ß‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚ÍOK‚Ì•¶‚Å‚ ‚낤B‚Ü‚½AQuirk et al.
(1985, p.64) ‚̓}ƒŒ‚Å‚ ‚éA‚Æ‚Í‚µ‚È‚ª‚ç‚àAŽŸ‚Ì 9-B ‚Í‹N‚±‚肤‚é(could well 
occur)‰ï˜b‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚·‚éB
             9) A:Has a candidate named Petersen been interviewed yet?
                B:He wasn't in the waiting room two minutes ago.He may have 
                  been being interviewed then.
@@@@@‚¿‚Ȃ݂ɁA—é–؁EˆÀˆäò(1994, p.209)‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁A•“®ŽŒ‚ª”FŽ¯—l‘Ì“I
(epistemic)‚ȏꍇ‚ÉŒÀ‚Á‚Đis‘ŠAŠ®—¹‘Š‚Æ‹¤‚É—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚é(Leech, G.N. p.98)B
—Ⴆ‚΁Amay ‚Í 10) ‚É‚Ý‚é‚悤‚ɁAis‘ŠAŠ®—¹‘Š‚Æ‹¤‚É—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éê‡‚ɂ́A
u‰Â”\«v‚Æ‚¢‚¤”FŽ¯‰Â”\«“IˆÓ–¡‚ƂȂ邱‚Æ‚Í‚ ‚Á‚Ä‚àAu‹–‰Âv‚Æ‚¢‚¤’m“I
(cognitive)ˆÓ–¡‚ƂȂ邱‚Æ‚Í‚È‚¢B
            10)a.  She may be bluffing. (‰Â”\«‚nA‹–‰Â‚wj
               b.  You may have left your wallet on the bus.(“¯ãj
         @@@@@@|Leech, G.N. 1987, p.98
@@@@@‚Ü‚½Abe ‚uing ‚ª•s‰Â‚̏ꍇ‚Å‚àAwill be ‚uing ‚Å‚Í OK‚ƂȂ鎟‚̂悤‚È
ê‡‚à‚ ‚éB
            11)a.  He'll be owning his own house next.
               b. *He is owning his own house now.
                     |—é–؁EˆÀˆäò, pp.211-212/Quirk et al. 1985, p.217)


 ø¢16-3-NT-(D)@mŒp‘±‚Ìhave ‚uen@vs@have been ‚uingn 
@@@@@ˆê‰ñŒÀ‚è‚̍sˆ×‚ð•\‚·“®ŽŒ‚ª have ‚uenŒ`‚É‚æ‚Á‚ÄŒp‘±‚ð•\‚·‚Æ‚«‚ɂ́u‰ß‹Ž
‚É‚­‚è•Ô‚µ‹N‚«‚½sˆ×v(¬“cAãAp.233)‚ð•\‚µAhave been ‚uingŒ`‚É‚æ‚Á‚āu¡‘±‚¢
‚Ä‚¢‚ésˆ×v‚ð•\‚·B
@@@@@@1)a. Rita has talked to Josh on the phone many times.
              b. Rita has been talking to Josh on the phone for twenty minutes.
‚±‚̏ꍇAhave VenŒ`‚Æhave been VingŒ`‚Ƃł͈Ӗ¡‚ªˆÙ‚È‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚éB
@@@@@‚µ‚©‚µAlive, work, teach ‚È‚Ç“Á’è‚Ì“®ŽŒ‚ªA since ‚Ü‚½‚Í for ‚ƈꏏ‚É
Žg‚í‚ê‚é‚Æ‚«‚́AŒ»ÝŠ®—¹‚ÆŒ»ÝŠ®—¹isŒ`‚̈Ӗ¡‚Í‚ ‚Ü‚è•Ï‚í‚ç‚È‚¢B(¬“cAãA
p.51)
            2)a. He has worked at the same store for ten years.
              b. He has been working at the same store for ten years.
@@@@@—é–؁EˆÀˆäò(p.285)‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁Asit, lie, wait, say ‚È‚Ç ˆêŽž“Ió‘Ô
(temporary state)‚ð•\‚·“®ŽŒ‚́AŒp‘±‚ð•\‚·ê‡A’PƒŠ®—¹‘Š‚ÌŒ`Ž®‚Å—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚é‚æ‚è
‚àŠ®—¹is‘Š‚ÌŒ`Ž®‚Å—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚é‚Ì‚ª•’Ê‚Å‚ ‚éBiLeech, G.N. p.50)
            3)a. I've sat here all afternoon.
              b. I've been sittng here all afternoon.(ˆêŽž“Ió‘Ô‚Å‚Í‚±‚¿‚炪•’Ê)


 ø¢16-3-NT-(E)@m•¡‡‚uŠg[Žq‚Ì’†‚̏€‚uŠg[Žqn 
@@@@@—é–؁EˆÀˆäò(p.219)‚É‚æ‚é‚ƁAŽŸ‚̂悤‚ÈŒ`‚ªOK‚Æ‚³‚ê‚éB 
@@@@@@1)  will be able to ‚u
            2)  will have to ‚u
         ‚Ü‚½A have been going to ‚Æ‚¢‚¤Š®—¹‘Š‚ð—p‚¢‚é‚ƁA3) ‚É‚Ý‚é‚悤‚ɁAŽÀŒ»
‚Å‚«‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚±‚Ƃ𖾎¦“I‚É•\‚·‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚éBiPalmer,1974,p.65;Close,1975,p.258)
            3)  You've been going to play tennis with me for months, 
                but you've never played with me yet.


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