‘æ‚h‚uÍ@•¶i‚rj‚ÌŠg[ y‹³Žt—pƒm[ƒgz

‚k‚d‚r‚r‚n‚m@‚P‚V@@‹­’²•¶FEMPH-S

 ø¢17-1-NT-(A)@mŠî–{•¶iK-Sjn 
@@@@@‚±‚Ì–{‚ł́A9-1 ‚ŏq‚ׂ½‚悤‚É(i)‚m{‚u‚̍\‘¢‚ðŽ‚¿A‚µ‚½‚ª‚Á‚āA(ii)
‚m‚Æ‚u‚̊ԂɁoŒÄ‰žp‚ÌŠg[Žq AGR(PRS/PST) ‚ðŽ‚Â‚à‚̂𕶁i‚rj‚ƌĂԂªA‚»‚Ì‚¤‚¿
‚à‚Á‚Æ‚àƒVƒ“ƒvƒ‹‚È‚à‚Ì‚ðŠî–{•¶ikernel sentence)A‚ ‚é‚¢‚́AK-S‚ƌĂԁB
 @@@@ ˆÀˆäi1994, pp.28ff) ‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁A•¶‚É‚ÍŽŸ‚̂悤‚È‚à‚Ì‚ª‚ ‚éB
   (i) ’P•¶(simple sentence)‚Æ‘½d•¶(multiple  sentence)
         a)’P•¶
 @@    b)‘½d•¶
             (1)d•¶
             (2)•¡•¶isuperordinate clause + subordinate clausej
  (ii) ‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚Ç‚Ì•¶‚́A’q(statement) ‚Å‚ ‚é‚©Ž¿–â(question)‚Å‚ ‚é‚©‚Ì‚Ç‚¿‚ç‚©
@@@ ‚Å‚ ‚éB‚»‚Ì‘¼A­””h‚Ì•¶ƒ^ƒCƒv‚Æ‚µ‚āAŽw}(directive)AŠè–](wish)A Š´
       ’Q(exclamation)‚ª‚ ‚éB
 (iii) •¶‚́Am’è(affirmative/positive)•¶‚Ɣےè(negative)•¶‚É•ª‚¯‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚éB
  (iv) •¶‚́A’f’è(assertive)•¶‚Æ”ñ’f’è(nonassertive)•¶‚ɂ킯‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚éB“à—e
       ‚ªm’è“I‚Å‹^–â‚ðŠÜ‚Ü‚È‚¢‚à‚Ì‚ª’f’蕶B’P‚ÉŒ`‚̏ã‚ÅŒˆ‚Ü‚é‚Ì‚Å‚Í‚È‚­A‘S‘Ì
       ‚̈Ӑ}i“`’B“à—ej‚É‚æ‚Á‚ÄŒˆ‚Ü‚éB—Ⴆ‚΁ADidn't I warn you against him?
       ‚ÍŒ`‚̏ã‚Å‚Í‹^–╶‚¾‚ª’f’蕶Bip.36)
@@@@@‚µ‚½‚ª‚Á‚āA‚±‚Ì–{‚ÅŒ¾‚¤uŠî–{•¶v(K-S)‚Ƃ́A’P•¶|’q|m’è|’f’蕶
‚Å‚ ‚éB


 ø¢17-1-NT-(B)@m‹­’²•¶(EMPH-S)n 
@@@@@u‹­’²•¶v‚Æ‚¢‚¤ŒÄ‚Ñ–¼‚́AŽÀ‚́AŠm—§‚µ‚½—pŒê‚Æ‚ÍŒ¾‚¢“ï‚¢BMcCawleyA
J.D.(1988, p.237)‚́Aretorts‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŽŸ‚Ì‚S‚‚̗á‚ð‚ ‚°‚Ä‚¢‚éB
         @@1)  John HAS mailed the letter.
             2)  Margaret IS practising the piano.
             3)  The meeting WILL start at 2:30.
             4)  Hindemith DID write a horn concerto. 
         ‚½‚¾‚µAMcCawley‚́Aã‹L—ᕶ‚ð‘S•¶‹­’²‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚æ‚è‚Í•”•ª“I‘Δ䋭’²‚Æ‚µ‚Ä
‚Ƃ炦‚Ä‚¨‚èA3) ‚Ì WILL start ‚́Awon't start‚ð”ے肵A‚±‚ꂪ‚à‚µAwill START 
‚È‚ç‚Î will end ‚ƑΔ䂵A‚±‚ê‚ð”Û’è‚·‚é‚Æ‚·‚éB


 ø¢17-1-NT-(C)@mŠî–{•¶/‹­’²•¶‚̃Cƒ“ƒgƒl|ƒVƒ‡ƒ“n 
@@@@@’|—Ñ(p.153)‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁A‚±‚Ì–{‚ÅŒ¾‚¤Šî–{•¶iK-Sj‚Ì•W€“I‚ȃCƒ“ƒgƒl|ƒVƒ‡
ƒ“‚ÍŽŸ‚̂悤‚È‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB
@@@@@@@1)   I'd   like   a   cup   of   coffee  
                                               ‚S«     @@i‰ºü‚́{‹­¨j
                          ‚R
              @@ ‚Q           ‚Q   ‚Q   ‚Q
                                               @@‚P
                 ‘O“ª•” b  “ª•”              bŠjb”ö•”
ã‚ŁA“ª•”iheadj‚Ƃ́u•¶‚Ì’†‚ōŏ‰‚É‹­¨‚Ì‚ ‚鉹ß‚©‚çŠj‚Ì’¼‘O‚̉¹ß‚܂Łv‚ðA
Šjinucleusj‚Ƃ́uƒsƒbƒ`‚ª‹}Œƒ‚ɉº~‚Ü‚½‚͏㏸‚·‚é‚Æ‚±‚ëv‚ð•\‚·B
@@@@@ˆê•ûA‚±‚±‚ÅŒ¾‚¤‹­’²•¶iEMPH-Sj‚Ì“TŒ^“I‚ȃCƒ“ƒgƒl|ƒVƒ‡ƒ“‚́AŽŸ‚̂悤
‚È‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB(p.159) 
    @        2)  The   boys   are   here.
                  ‚Q    ‚R     ‚S«   ‚Q
    @        3)  I   did   see   a   ghost.
                  ‚Q  ‚S«   ‚R   ‚Q   ‚R


 ø¢17-1-NT-(D)@mƒAƒNƒZƒ“ƒgi‹­’²j‚̓sƒbƒ`B‹­¨(ƒXƒgƒŒƒX)‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢n 
@@@@@‚±‚±‚ÅŒ¾‚¤uƒAƒNƒZƒ“ƒgv‚́ABolinger, D.(1986, p.20) ‚ÌŒ¾‚¤"abrupt 
pitch jump"i“Ë‘R‚̃sƒbƒ`‚̏㉺j‚ð‚³‚·B
          Bolinger(ibid. pp.14-22)‚́Ao‹­’²piaccenting) ‚É‚©‚©‚í‚é‚͉̂¹‚Ì‹­
Žã‚ð•\‚·u‹­¨vistress)‚Å‚Í‚È‚­A‚Þ‚µ‚ëA‰¹‚̍‚’á‚ðŽ¦‚·uƒsƒbƒ`v(pitch) ‚Å‚ 
‚é‚Æ‚µ‚āAŽŸ‚̂悤‚È——R‚ð‚ ‚°‚Ä‚¢‚éB
          (i)  length‚Æloudness‚ÍŽ©‘R‰ï˜b‚Ì’†‚Å‚Ídistortion‚ðŽó‚¯ˆÕ‚¢‚ªpitch 
@@@@@   @‚͈À’肵‚Ä‚¢‚éA(p.22)
         (ii)  abrupt pitch jump ‚Í•K‚¸‹­’²iemphasis)‚ð•\‚·‚ªA‹­¨istress) 
@@@@@@@ ‚ª‚ ‚é‚©‚ç‚Æ‚¢‚Á‚Ä‹­’²‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é(emphasized)‚Æ‚ÍŒÀ‚ç‚È‚¢B
               (p.14-15)
@@@@@—Ⴆ‚΁A(ii)‚Ì—á‚Æ‚µ‚āAŽŸ‚Ì1)‚ŁA
             1) A:Would you put up with something like that?
                B:I 
                    would never put up with it.
I ‚Íemphasize/accent ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚邪Anever ‚Í ‹­¨‚Í‚ ‚éiis still stressed)‚à‚Ì‚Ì
‹­’²‚³‚ê‚Ä‚Í‚¢‚È‚¢iis not emphasized or accentedj‚Æ‚·‚éB
          ‚¿‚Ȃ݂ɁATaglicht, J. (p.50)‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁Astress‚É‚æ‚éNew/Given Info‚Ì‹æ
•Ê‚ð‚Í‚¶‚ß‚½‚Ì‚ÍSweet, H.(1969, pp.199ff)‚Å‚ ‚邪Apitch‚ð a matter of prominence
‚Æ‚µ‚Ĉµ‚Á‚½‚Ì‚ÍColeman, H.O.(1912)‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤B


 ø¢17-1-NT-(E)@m‹­’²F‘Δ䂩ŠÖSEŠ´’Q‚©n 
          Swan, M.(1995, pp.182-183) ‚́A‚ ‚éŒê(word)‚â•\Œ»(expression)‚ð‹­’²
(emphasise or strengthen)‚·‚闝—R‚ª‚Q‚‚ ‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤B
         (i) emotive emphasis (to show that we feel strongly about ...)
              1) You DO look nice today!
        (ii) contrastive emphasis (to show a contrast ...)
              2) Why weren't you at the meeting?/I WAS at the meeting.
@@@@@Bolinger, D.(1986, p.95)‚́A‹­’²iaccenting)‚̐³‘̂́Acontrast ‚ð•\‚·
‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚æ‚èAfocus of interest ‚ð•\‚·‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚·‚éBŽŸ‚Ì 3) ‚Æ 4j‚ŁA 
             3) We have been talking about their customs, dress, ceremonials,
                marriage, etc.  Now I'd like to know about another aspect of 
                their culture: What did they éat?
             4) They were forbidden pork, beef, cereal grains, and fruits?!
                What did they éat?
3)‚Ì eat ‚É‚Ífood customs ‚ɂ‚¢‚Ä "contrast" ‚ª‚ ‚邪A4)‚Ì eat ‚É‚Í focus of 
interest ‚Í‚ ‚é‚à‚̂́A‚Í‚Á‚«‚è‚Æ‚µ‚½ contrast ‚Í‚È‚¢‚Æ‚·‚éB
          Š´î“I‚È‹­’²ip.682)‚ƑΔ䋭’²ip.654)‚ð‹æ•Ê‚·‚铯—l‚Ì‹c˜_‚Í’rã(1977)
‚É‚àŒ©‚ç‚ê‚éB’rã‚́AŠ´î“I‚È‹­’²‚ðŽ‚Â•¶‚Æ‚µ‚āAŽŸ‚ð‚ ‚°A
         @@5) That WÌLL be nice.  (p.681)
             6) What ÁRE you DÒING?    (p.682) 


                      i‘啶Žš‚ÍŠj‰¹ßAƒAƒNƒZƒ“ƒg‹L†‚͉¹’²Acü‚Í‹­¨‚ðŽ¦‚·j
‚³‚ç‚ɁuŠ´î“I‚È‹­’²‚ɂ͑ΏƂ̈Ӗ¡‚Í‚È‚¢v(p.682)‚Æ‚µA—Ⴆ‚΁Aã‚Ì 5) ‚ɂ́A‰ß
‹Ž‚Ƃ̑Δä‚Í‚È‚¢A‚Æ‚·‚éB
@@@@@‚½‚¾‚µA‹­’²‚ª‘Δä‚ð•\‚·‚Ì‚©ŠÖSEŠ´’Q‚ð•\‚·‚Ì‚©‚Í”÷–­‚È‚Æ‚±‚ë‚Å‚ ‚éB
—Ⴆ‚΁A1) ‚É contrast ‚̊܈ӂȂµ‚Æ‚ÍŒ¾‚¢Ø‚ꂸA2) ‚É emotive ‚È—v‘f‚È‚µ‚Æ‚àŒ¾
‚¢‚ª‚½‚¢B‚Ü‚½A5) ‚ɂ͉ߋŽ‚Ƃ̑Δä‚Í‚È‚¢‚ª”Û’èŒ` won't ‚Ƃ̑Δä‚Í‚ ‚é‚悤‚ÉŽv‚í
‚ê‚éB


 ø¢17-2-NT@mAllen, R.L. ‚Ì X Sectorn 
@@@@@Allen, R.L.(p.106) ‚Í negative sentence ‚â emphatic sentence ‚ðì‚é"X 
sector"‚Æ‚¢‚¤ position ‚ðl‚¦A‚±‚Ì‚w‚̈ʒu‚É extra heavy stress‚ânot ‚â time 
reference ‚È‚Ç‚ð‰^‚Ô first aux ‚ª“®‚¢‚Ä‚­‚é‚ƍl‚¦‚éB‚³‚ç‚ɁA•¶(S)‘S‘Ì‚ðŠg[‚·‚é
—v‘f‚Æ‚µ‚āASeuren,P.A.M.(1969) ‚Ì operator ‚â Celce-Murcia & Larsen-Freeman
(1983/1999)‚Ì sm(sentence modifier) ‚ðŽQÆ‚³‚ꂽ‚¢B


 ø¢17-3-NT-(A)@mƒAƒNƒZƒ“ƒgˆÚ“®Hn 
@@@@@‚±‚±‚ł́uAGR‚ɃAƒNƒZƒ“ƒg‚ð’u‚­v‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ¾‚¢•û‚ð‚·‚é‚ªAŽÀ‚́AuAGR‚ɃA
ƒNƒZƒ“ƒg‚ðˆÚ“®‚·‚év‚ªŒµ–§‚È•\Œ»‚Å‚ ‚낤B—Ⴆ‚΁A
@@      1) We love music.
‚́AŽÀ‚́A˜b‚µŒ¾—t‚̃Œƒxƒ‹‚ł́A•¶––‚É unmarked ‚̃AƒNƒZƒ“ƒg‚ðŽ‚ÂA
          2) We love MUsic.
‚¾‚©‚ç‚Å‚ ‚éBcf.17-1-NT-(C)
    @@@‚Ü‚½AuAGRi‘å]‚Å‚ÍTnj‚ðÅ“_‚Æ‚·‚é\•¶v‚Æ‚¢‚¤”­‘z‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮA‘å]
(p.183)‚ðŽQÆ‚³‚ꂽ‚¢B‘å]‚́A
          3) They DO/CAN speak Japanese.
          4)a. JOHN bought his book at that store yesterday.
            b. John bought his book at THAT store yesterday.
‚ŁA3) ‚ÍAGR ‚É Emph ‚ª‚‚¢‚½Œ`A4-a) ‚â 4-b) ‚Í‚m‚âDet‚ÉEmph‚ª‚‚¢‚½Œ`‚Æ‚µ‚Đà
–¾‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB


 ø¢17-3-NT-(B)@m‹­’²‚Ì‘€ìn 
@@@@@‚rŠg[Žq‚́o‹­’²p(EMPH)‚́u‹ï‘Ì“I‚È’PŒê‚È‚Ç‚Ì•t‰Áv‚Å‚Í‚È‚­AuƒAƒNƒZ
ƒ“ƒg‚ðŽ‚Á‚½ŒêA‚‚܂èAƒIƒyƒŒ[ƒ^[‚𐶂ݏo‚·ˆê˜A‚Ì‘€ìv‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤“_‚ŁA‹³Žº
Œ»ê‚Å‚Í‚È‚¶‚Ý‚É‚­‚¢‚©‚à‚µ‚ê‚È‚¢B‚½‚¾A‰pŒê‚ł͔ے蕶A‹^–╶AƒVƒ‡[ƒgEƒAƒ“ƒT[
‚ȂǂŃIƒyƒŒ[ƒ^[‚𐶂ݏo‚·‚±‚Ì‘€ì‚Í•p”É‚ÉŽg‚í‚ê‚éB‚ЂƂ‚̈Ӗ¡‚ð—^‚¦‚邽‚ß‚Ì
Œ`‚̏ã‚Å‚Ì•¡”‚Ì‘€ìA‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Ƃŏæ‚èØ‚ê‚È‚¢‚¾‚낤‚©B‚¿‚Ȃ݂ɁA‚ЂƂ‚̈Ӗ¡’P
ˆÊ‚ð—^‚¦‚邽‚ß‚ÉŒ`‚̏ã‚Å•¡”‚Ì‘€ì‚ð•K—v‚Æ‚·‚éŠÈ’P‚È—á‚Æ‚µ‚ẮA
@@@@@@@1) city +PL ¨ citi + PL  ¨ citiesi‘‚«Œ¾—tj
         “`““I‚ɂ́ACelce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman(1983, pp.97-99)‚̂悤‚ɁA
ŽŸ‚Ì‚RƒXƒeƒbƒv‚Å‹­’²•¶‚ðì‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚Ì‚ªˆê”Ê“I‚Å‚ ‚éB
             (i) Aux ‚ª‚ ‚éê‡AÅ‰‚Ì—v‘f‚ɃXƒgƒŒƒX‚ðB
            (ii) Aux‚ª‚È‚¢ê‡‚ŁA–{“®ŽŒ‚ÌBE‚ª‚ ‚éê‡‚́A‚»‚ÌBE‚ɃXƒgƒŒƒX‚ðB
           (iii) Aux ‚à–{“®ŽŒ‚ÌBE‚à‚È‚¢ê‡‚ɂ̓XƒgƒŒƒX‚ðŽ‚ÂDO/DOES/DID‚Ì‘}“üB
‚±‚Ì“`““I‚È‚â‚è•û‚́A•\‘w‚Å•ÏŒ`‚ª‚Å‚«‚éA‚Æ‚¢‚¤“_‚Å‚·‚®‚ꂽ‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‚½‚¾‚µA
‚±‚Ì–{‚ł́A-DOŒ^/+DOŒ^“®ŽŒAPRS/PST‚̌ĉž‚È‚Ç‘‡“I‚È•ªÍ—Í‚ðŒ©˜‚¦‚½ã‚Å‚ ‚¦ 
‚Ä–{•¶‚̂悤‚ÈŒ`‚ð’ñˆÄ‚µ‚½B


 ø¢17-4-NT-(A)@mƒIƒyƒŒ[ƒ^[ioperatorj‚Ƃ́n 
 @@@@‘å’ˁE’†“‡ipp.803-804)‚ɂ́AOPERATOR(‘€ìŽŒj‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŽŸ‚Ì(i)A(ii)A(iii)
‚Ìà–¾i—vŽ|j‚ª‚ ‚éB
         (i) Firth(1975b;1968,p.182)‚Ì—pŒêBQuirk et al.(GCE, 2.2)‚È‚Ç‚àŽg—p‚·‚éB
             ‘€ìŽŒ‚ÍŽÀÛ‚É‚Í’èŒ`‚̏•“®ŽŒ‚Ì‚Ù‚©‚ɁA–{“®ŽŒ‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚Ì’èŒ`‚Ìbe ‚¨‚æ‚Ñ
@@@@@@ Žå‚Æ‚µ‚ăCƒMƒŠƒX‚ʼnpŒê‚É‚¨‚¯‚é’èŒ`‚Ì have ‚Å‚ ‚éB‚±‚ê‚ç‚Ì“­‚«‚É‚æ‚Á
             ‚āA‹^–âE”Û’èE‹­’²‚È‚Ç‚Ì•¶‚ª–¾‚ç‚©‚É‚È‚éB
         @@   1) Did it rain yesterday?
                2) The girl isn't a student.
                3) That WILL be nice!
        (ii) Harris(1970) ‚ł́AŠj•¶iKERNEL SENTENCE)‘S‘́A‚Ü‚½‚Í‚»‚ê‚ÉŠÜ‚Ü‚ê‚Ä
             ‚¢‚é“®ŽŒ‚ɍì—p‚µ‚Ä•ÏŒ`•¶‚ðì‚é‚à‚Ì‚ð‚³‚·B—Ⴆ‚΁AŽŸ‚Ì 4) ‚É‚¨‚¢‚āA
                4) He studies eclipses. ¨  He is studying eclipses.
@@@@@@ is-ing ‚Í“®ŽŒ‘€ìŽŒiverb operator) ‚Å‚ ‚èAŽŸ‚Ì 5) ‚É‚¨‚¢‚āA
                5)  He came. ¨ I know (that) he came.  
@@@@@@ I know ‚Í•¶‘€ìŽŒisentence operator)‚Å‚ ‚éB
       (iii) Seuren, P.A.M.(1969)‚ł́A[‘w\‘¢‚ðNucleus(Šj)‚ÆOperator(‘€ìŽŒ)‚É
             “ñ•ª‚µANucleus(Šj)‚ÍŽåŒêEqŒêE–Ú“IŒê‚»‚Ì‘¼‚ÌŠÖŒW‚¾‚¯‚ð•\‚µA
             Operator(‘€ìŽŒ)‚Í‚»‚ê‚ɍì—p‚·‚é”Û’èE‹^–âE’ñˆÄEŽž§‚»‚Ì‘¼‚ðŠÜ‚ށB
‚±‚Ì–{‚ł́A
        (iv) ‚rŠg[Žq{‹­’²}‚ÌEMPH‚É‚æ‚èƒAƒNƒZƒ“ƒg‚ðŽ‚Â‚æ‚¤‚É‚È‚Á‚½Œê‚ðƒIƒyƒŒ[
             ƒ^[‚ƌĂԁB
          ‚µ‚½‚ª‚Á‚āA‚±‚Ì–{‚Å‚ÍŽŸ‚Ì 6)-a, 7)-a ‚Ì IS, DID ‚̓IƒyƒŒ[ƒ^[‚Å‚ ‚é
‚ªA6-b), 7-b) ‚Ì is ‚â did ‚̓IƒyƒŒ[ƒ^[‚ƌĂ΂Ȃ¢
               6)a. The girl IS a student.
                 b. The girl is a STUdent.
               7)a. DID it rain yesterday?
                 b. Did it rain YESterday?
‚½‚¾‚µA‚ӂ‚¤AŠwK‰p•¶–@‚ł́AƒIƒyƒŒ[ƒ^[‚͏ã‹L(i)‚Ì—§ê‚ð‚Æ‚èu‹­’²•¶‚ŃAƒN
ƒZƒ“ƒg‚ðŽ‚ÂŒêv‚Å‚Í‚È‚­AuƒAƒNƒZƒ“ƒg‚ð’u‚©‚ê‚é‚Í‚¸‚ÌŒêv‚ð‚³‚·B—Ⴆ‚΁AQurik
et al.(1985, p.79)‚Å‚Í PREDICATE = OPERATOR + PREDICATION ‚Æ‚³‚êA‚±‚Ì OPERATOR
‚Í first and only auxiliary(but cf2.49) ‚¾‚¯‚Å‚È‚­ 'dummy' auxiliary ‚Ì DO(DO-
SUPPORT)‚âBE‚à‚³‚·B‚µ‚½‚ª‚Á‚āAŽŸ‚Ì8) ‚ŁAis ‚Í aux‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚ª operator‚Å‚ ‚éB
(p81)
               8) Is everything ready?
‚±‚̏ꍇ‚ɂ́Aã‚Ì 6-b) ‚Ìis ‚â 7-b) ‚Ì did‚àƒIƒyƒŒ[ƒ^[‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚éB
@@@@@‚Ü‚½AƒIƒyƒŒ[ƒ^[‚Ì–óŒê‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮA’rãip.507)‚ł́Au‘€ìŒêvAˆÀˆä
(1994,p.72)‚ł́u‰‰ŽZŽqv‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚Ü‚½AˆÀˆä(1996, p.155)‚́APalmer ‚â Hornby
‚É‚æ‚Á‚āu•Ï‘¥’èŒ`“®ŽŒ vitwenty-four anomalous finitesj‚ƌĂ΂ꂽA24ŒÂ‚Ì“®ŽŒ
iam, is, are, was, do, does, did, can, could, dare, used ‚Ȃǁj‚ðu“Á•Ê“®ŽŒv‚Æ
ŒÄ‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚éB


 ø¢17-4-NT-(B)@m‰IŒ¾“I do ‚Ì‹NŒ¹FŽg–ð‚Ì don 
         ’†”öEŽ™”n(pp.70ff)‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁A‚o‚d‚Ì‹­’²•¶‚ÅŽg‚í‚ê‚鏕“®ŽŒ doi‰IŒ¾“Ido)
‚ð‚à‚½‚炵‚½‚ƍl‚¦‚ç‚ê‚é‚à‚Á‚Æ‚à—L—Í‚È—vˆö‚̂ЂƂ‚́AŽg–𓮎Œ‚Ì do(=cause) ‚Å‚ 
‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤B(p.70)
         @@1) he dede davy sadillyn an-oder hors 
                 (=he caused Davy to saddle another horse)  (PL II 28/38-9)
             2) I did (someone) saddle a horse.
             3) I want to saddle a horse.
‚‚܂èA1)‚̂悤‚ÈŽg–ðŒ`‚ª2)‚Æ‚È‚èA•s’è–¼ŽŒ(someone)È—ª‚ðŒo‚āA3)‚ÌŒ`‚̃Aƒiƒ
ƒW[‚©‚çAsaddle ‚ÌŽåŒê‚ª I ‚Æ‚È‚éV‰ðŽß‚ª¶‚Ü‚êA‚³‚ç‚É did ‚Í’P‚Ȃ鎞§ƒ}[ƒJ[
‚ւƕϐg‚µ‚½‚Æ‚¢‚¤B‚Ü‚½A¡“ú‚̉IŒ¾“I do ‚ªd—v‚Ȃ̂́Au‹­’²v‚¾‚¯‚Å‚È‚­A‹^–â
•¶‚â”ے蕶‚É‚à—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚é‚©‚ç‚É‚Ù‚©‚È‚ç‚È‚¢‚ªA‚n‚d‚É‚Í‚Ü‚Á‚½‚­‚È‚­A‚l‚d‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä
‚Í—á‚Í‚ ‚é‚à‚Ì‚ÌŠm—§‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Æ‚ÍŒ¾‚¦‚È‚¢‚Ƃׂ̂Ă¢‚éB(p.73)


 ø¢17-5-NT-(A)@mEMPH ‚̍ì—pˆæn 
@@@@@Šj‹­¨i‚±‚Ì–{‚ł̓AƒNƒZƒ“ƒgj‚Əî•ñ\‘¢‚Æ‚ÌŠÖŒW‚́Ar–؁EˆÀˆä(pp.
523ff) ‚ÉŠÈŒ‰‚É‚Ü‚Æ‚ß‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚»‚ê‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁A
         (i)ƒ‹Œî•ñi‘O’ñj vs  Vî•ñiÅ“_j„
@@@@@@”­˜b‚́A‹Œî•ñ‚ƐVî•ñ‚Æ‚©‚琬‚èA‹Œî•ñ‚ð•\‚·•”•ª‚́u‘O’ñv
(PRESUPPOSITION)AVî•ñ‚ð•\‚·•”•ª‚́uÅ“_v(FOCUS)‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚éB—Ⴆ‚΁A
              1)A: What did John do?
                B: He opened the door.
‚ŁAJohn did something. ‚ª‘O’ñAopened the door ‚ªÅ“_‚Å‚ ‚éB‚Ü‚½AVî•ñ‚ðŽ¦‚·
Œê‹å‚ªÅ“_‚Å‚ ‚èAÅ“_‚ÍŠj‹­¨(nuclear stress)[•¶‹­¨(SENTENCE STRESS)‚ƌĂ΂ê‚é
‚±‚Æ‚à‚ ‚én‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•\Ž¦‚³‚ê‚éB
              2)A: Who did John give the doll to?
                B: He gave it to SÚsan.
‚ł́AŠj‹­¨‚Í SÚ ‚É‚ ‚邪Ato Susan ‘S‘Ì‚ªÅ“_‚Æ‚È‚éB
        (ii) ƒ–³•W‚̏œ_i•¶––j vs  —L•W‚̏œ_i‘Δäj„
@@@@@Å“_‚́AVî•ñ‚ð’S‚¤—v‘f‚Æ‚µ‚āA”­˜b‚ð\¬‚·‚镶‚Ì•¶––A‚Ü‚½‚́A‚»‚ê‚É
‹ß‚¢ˆÊ’u‚É’u‚©‚êAŠj‹­¨‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•\Ž¦‚³‚ê‚éB...‚±‚ê‚́u•¶––‚̏œ_v(END-FOCUS)‚Æ
ŒÄ‚΂ê‚éÅ‚àˆê”Ê“I‚È–³•W‚̏œ_‚Å‚ ‚éB...Šj‹­¨‚ª•¶––‚ÌŒê‹å‚̍Ōã‚̉¹ß‚É—ˆ‚éê
‡‚́AVî•ñ‚Í•¶‘S‘Ì‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚à‚ ‚邵AqŒêiPREDICATE)‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚à‚ ‚邵A•¶‚̍Ōã‚Ì—v
‘f‚Å‚ ‚邱‚Æ‚à‚ ‚éBŽŸ‚Ì—á‚́AVî•ñ‚‚܂èÅ“_‚͈̔͂ªA‚P‚‚łȂ­‚S‚‚̉”\«‚ð
Ž‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚ðŽ¦‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éBm‰ºü•”‚ªÅ“_iVî•ñjn
              3)A: What's on today?
                B: We're going to play TÈNnis. 
              4)A: What are we doing today?
                B: We're going to play TÈNnis. 
              5)A: What are we going to do today?
                B: We're going to play TÈNnis. 
              6)A: What are we going to play today?
                B: We're going to play TÈNnis. 
‚±‚̂悤‚ɁAŠj‹­¨‚Í“¯‚¶‚Å‚àAÅ“_‚̂Ђ낪‚è‚Í‚`‚Ì–â‚¢‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•Ï‚í‚éB
          ‚Ü‚½A—L•W‚̏œ_‚́A‚µ‚΂µ‚΁u‘ΔäÅ“_v(contrastive focus)‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŒ»‚ê
‚éB•¶––‚̏œ_i–³•Wj‚ɑ΂µ‚āAî•ñ\‘¢ã—L•W‚Å‚ ‚é‘ΔäÅ“_‚ÍŠj‹­¨‚𔺂Á‚āA”­
˜b‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚Ì•¶‚́A•¶––ˆÈŠO‚Ì—v‘f‚É‚à’u‚©‚êA‘ΏƁE‘Δä‚Æ‚¢‚¤ŠÏ“_‚©‚猩‚½ê‡‚̐Vî
•ñ‚ð’S‚¤B—Ⴆ‚΁AŽŸ‚Ì7-B) ‚̂悤‚ɁB
              7)A: Let's bring them a pound of TEA.

@@@@@‘ΔäÅ“_‚Í‚Ü‚½A‘€ìŒê(operator)‚É’u‚©‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚à‚ ‚éB‚±‚̏ꍇ‚ɂ́Am
’è‚Ɣےè‚̑Δä‚ðŽ¦‚·‚Æ‚¢‚¤‹@”\‚ðŽ‚ÂB
              8)A: Why haven't you had a bath?
                B: I HÀVE had a bath.           (p.525)
          Œ‹‹ÇA‰pŒê‚̃AƒNƒZƒ“ƒg‚ÍŽŸ‚̂悤‚É‚Ü‚Æ‚ß‚ç‚ê‚éB
     (i) ƒAƒNƒZƒ“ƒg‚ðŽ‚ÂŒê‹å‚Í‚·‚ׂđΔ䋭’²i‘ΔäÅ“_j‚ðŽ‚¿“¾‚éi—L•Wj
    (ii) ƒAƒNƒZƒ“ƒg‚ðŽ‚Â•¶––‚ÌŒê‹å‚Í‹­’²‚̈Ӗ¡‚ðŽ‚½‚È‚¢–³•W‚̏œ_‚Å‚ ‚邱‚Æ‚ª
@@@@@‘½‚¢i–³•Wj
   (iii) (ƒAƒNƒZƒ“ƒg‚ðŽ‚ÂjƒIƒyƒŒ|ƒ^|‚́A•¶‘S‘Ì‚Ì‹­’²‚ð•\‚·‚±‚Æ‚ª‘½‚¢i–³•Wj
          —Ⴆ‚΁AŽŸ‚Ì 9) ‚ł́A
              9) John met Mary YESTERDAY.
ƒRƒ“ƒeƒLƒXƒg‚É‚æ‚èA(ii)‚Ì yesterday ‚͐Vî•ñ‚Å‚Í‚ ‚邪‹­’²‚̈Ӗ¡‚ðŽ‚½‚È‚¢ê‡
i–³•Wj‚ƁA(i)‚̈êð“ú‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢ð“úA‚Æ‚¢‚Á‚½‘Δ䋭’²‚̈Ӗ¡‚ðŽ‚Âê‡i—L•Wj‚Ì
‰ðŽß‚ª‚Ȃ肽‚¿AŽŸ‚Ì 10) ‚ł́A
@           10) John DID write a book on frogs.
(iii)‚Ì•¶‘S‘Ì‚Ì‹­’²‚̏ꍇi–³•Wj‚Æ(i)‚̏‘‚©‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚Í‚È‚­Šm‚©‚ɏ‘‚¢‚½‚Ì‚¾‚Æ
m’è‚̈Ӗ¡‚ª‘Δ䋭’²‚³‚ê‚éê‡i—L•Wj‚©A‚à‚µ‚­‚́A‚±‚ê‚©‚ç‚Å‚Í‚È‚­‚à‚¤‚µ‚Ä‚µ‚Ü
‚Á‚½‚Æ‚¢‚¤‰ß‹Ž‚̈Ӗ¡‚ª‘Δ䋭’²‚³‚ê‚éê‡i—L•Wj‚̉ðŽß‚ª‚Ȃ肽‚B


 ø¢17-5-NT-(B)@mHAVE-EN‚É‹­¨FŒoŒ±n 
@@@@@—é–؁EˆÀˆäò(p.271A—vŽ|j‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁A
              1)  John left the office at five o'colck.
              2)  John has left the office at five o'clock.  „ŸDeclerck, p.108
                   iƒWƒ‡ƒ“‚͍¡‚Ü‚Å‚TŽž‚ɑގЂµ‚½‚±‚Æ‚ª‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·j
 2) ‚ÍŒoŒ±‚̈Ӗ¡‚ð•´‚ê‚È‚­“`‚¦‚邽‚߂ɏ•“®ŽŒ have ‚É‹­¨‚ª’u‚©‚ê 3) ‚̂悤‚É 
‚È‚é‚Ì‚ª•’Ê‚Å‚ ‚éB
              3)  John HAS left the office at five o'clock.


 ø¢17-5-NT-(C)@mTaglichit ‚Ì focus markern 
@@@@@Taglicht, J.(p.1) ‚Í prominence ‚ð—^‚¦‚邱‚Æ‚ð focusing ‚ƌĂсAfocusing
devices ‚É‚Í‚»‚̉e‹¿‚ª‹y‚Ô 'domain' ‚ª‚ ‚é‚Æ‚·‚éB‚Ü‚½Adomain ‚Ì’†‚ɂ́A(i)the 
(focus) marker, (ii)the focus, (iii)the residue(focusˆÈŠO‚ÌŽc‚è)‚ª‚ ‚é‚Æ‚·‚éB
@@@@@Taglicht, J.(pp.2-3)‚Ì‚¢‚¤ focus marker ‚Æ focus(‰ºü•”j‚Ì—á‚ð‚¢‚­‚Â
‚©‚ ‚°‚é‚ƁA
      (i) The cleft-sentence construction:
              1) It was Jack who called yesterday.
     (ii) The WH-interrogative:
              2) What would you like?
    (iii) The intonation nucleus:
              3)a. He was here.
                b. He was here.
                c. He was here.   (intonation‚ªmarker‚ŁA‰ºü•”‚ªfocus)
     (iv) Marked word order:
              4) His name I never found out.


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